Nearly every season in South Dakota there are periods of hot, dry weather in at least part of the state. If this hot and dry weather occurs during corn pollination and fertilization, negative effects on yield may be substantial.
Yields may be reduced at any point in the growing season when water usage exceeds supply. Early-season drought stress may reduce total plant size, ear size and the number of rows of kernels on the ear. However, as a rule, drought stress in the vegetative growth stage (up to V12) has minimal effect on final yield (Lauer, 2006).
Corn is the most susceptible to stress during pollination and fertilization, with daily potential yield losses of 3 to 8%. This period actually begins about 2 weeks prior to silk emergence, with a potential loss of up to 4% per day. During silking and pollen shed, the losses can be as high as 8% per day, depending on the severity of the stress. In the 2 weeks following silking, losses can be as high as 6% a day if the stress continues (Nielsen, 1996).
Pollination for a corn plant is the process of conveying the pollen from the tassel to the ear silks. The germination of pollen grains on the silks results in a pollen tube that transfers genetic material to the respective ovules on the ear. The fertilized ovule will then become a kernel of corn (Nielsen, 2016). Drought and heat stress may cause problems with this process by 1) Slowing silk emergence while accelerating pollen shed, 2) Dessicating silks to the point where they are no longer viable, and 3) Killing pollen directly. All of these issues may cause reduced kernel set or even a blank ear in extreme cases.
While growers worry about the effects of extreme heat on the pollination process, the fact is that high temperatures should not severely affect pollination if there is adequate soil moisture. Pollen shed occurs primarily in the morning when temperatures are relatively cool and the pollination process occurs over an extended period of time, with fresh pollen available each morning. There is a limit, however, to corn’s resilience to extreme hot temperature. Studies have found that pollination and grain fill can be negatively affected with extended periods of temperatures over 90°F (32°C). Optimal maximum temperatures during these growth stages are around 87°F (30.5°C) for flowering/pollination and 80°F (26.4°C) for grain fill (Sanchez et. al., 2014).
In addition, one corn plant can provide enough pollen to fertilize ten other plants, which helps to provide a natural buffer against stressful conditions. Producers who wish to obtain an early assessment of pollination can use the ‘Ear Shake Technique’ described by Dr. Bob Nielsen (2016). Late rainfall events will not correct the damage caused by poor pollination and fertilization.
Substantial losses can still occur during the early kernel development and grain fill stages, with losses of up to 5% per day as long as the stress remains. This may be due to aborted kernels and/or poor kernel development.
While we have no control over the weather, producers can manage for potential drought stress by using practices that conserve soil moisture and planting hybrids with a good overall stress tolerance. In some cases, planting early maturing hybrids may allow pollination and early kernel development to take place prior to heat and drought conditions.
References for Further Reading
- Hall, RC and EK Twidwell. 2002. Effects of Drought Stress on Corn Production. South Dakota State University Extension Extra.
- Lauer, J. 2006. Concerns about Drought as Corn Pollination Begins. Agronomy Advice, University of Wisconsin.
- Nielsen, RL. 1996. Drought and Heat Stress Effects on Corn Pollination. Purdue Pest Management and Crop Production Newsletter.
- Nielsen, RL. 2016. A Fast and Accurate “Pregnancy” Test for Corn. Corny News Network, Purdue University.
- Sanchez, B., A. Rasmussen, J. R. Porter, 2014. Temperatures and the growth and development of maize and rice: a review. Global Change Biology, 20, 408-417, doi: 10.1111/gcb.12389.